It hybridizes with S. maritima in Europe, with S. pectinata in Massachusetts, and with S. foliosa in California. It ranges from 2 to 7 feet tall and has leaf blades that are … Spartina alterniflora is found on muddy banks, usually of the intertidal zone, in eastern North and South America, but it is not known from Central America. Exposure to salt water is not a requirement for this species, but it will help produce healthier and longer living colonies. 0000004598 00000 n This paper. Smooth cordgrass spreads rapidly by rhizomatous roots. Spartina alterniflora . The rhizomes and scales of S. alterniflora have large air spaces, presumably an adaptation to the anaerobic soils of its usual habitat. 2004, Travis et al. 0000001457 00000 n At Elders Point East the S. alterniflora upper limit and lower limit of the growth range in relation to Mean High Water (MHW) were 0.45 m and -0.32 m, respectively (Growth range … This basic field guide illustrates the most common plants in Virginia’s tidal salt marshes where the salinity range A positive correlation between MTR and elevational growth range (r=0.91) demonstrated that the Spartina alterniflora zone expands with increasing tidal amplitude. List of Figures . Atlantic cordgrass. 2. 0000025563 00000 n 0000000892 00000 n 0 Spartina alterniflora is found on muddy banks, usually of the intertidal zone, in eastern North and South America, but it is not known from Central America. The microcosm has a 38-cm spring tide range, with a neap to spring high tide difference of 9cm. Spartina alterniflora invasion significantly decreased soil fungal richness. This indicates that tidal range has been increasing within the bay at the same rate with sea-leave rise (3.9 mm yr-1) since 2007. In addition, it has become established on the west coast of North America, and in England and southeastern France. conditions, but generally will range from 24” to 72.” Colonies tend to grow parallel to and continuous along shorelines; the width and thickness of a vegetative colony is controlled by a number of site-specific conditions such as elevation, shoreline-slope, and frequency, depth, and duration of flooding. 0000005386 00000 n Figure 3. In the native range of the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflorain the United States, soil nematode genus richness and diversity decreased with increasing latitude, with genus richness at lower latitudes being almost twice that at higher latitudes. GREAT ISLAND, WELLFLEET . This narrow band stretches for approximately 0.25 miles. 0000008900 00000 n It thrives in mucky soil in full sun. • Soil pH and salinity were the shaping factors in the fungal community structure. %PDF-1.4 %���� smooth cordgrass. Exposure to salt water is not a requirement for this species, but it will help produce healthier and longer living colonies. A narrow, unvegetated patch separates Spartina patens and tall form Spartina alterniflora near the mouth of the Herring River. Figure 1. 0000001276 00000 n The leaves lack auricles and have ligules (1-2 mm) that consist of a fringe of hairs. Delmarva Native Plants primarily grows Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass), Spartina patens (salt meadow hay), and Distichlis spicata (spike grass) in 2″ plugs. S. alterniflora pollen has a relatively limited range (1 to 3 m), and the reproductive stems produce small seeds (2 to 5 mm) that are dispersed via the tides (Davis et al. It thrives in mucky soil in full sun. 1916. Sheaths mostly glabrous, throat glabrous or minutely pilose, lower sheaths often wrinkled; ligules 1-2 mm; blades to 60 cm long, 3-25 mm wide, lower blades shorter than those above, usually flat basally, becoming involute distally, abaxial surfaces glabrous, adaxial surfaces glabrous or sparsely pilose, margins usually smooth, sometimes slightly scabrous, apices attenuate. Download Full PDF Package. 2004). SPECIES: Spartina alterniflora GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Smooth cordgrass is found along the eastern seaboard of North America from Newfoundland and Quebec to northern Florida, and in the Gulf of Mexico from Florida to southern Texas [ 24 , 27 ]. Figure 4. Spartina alterniflora commonly known as smooth cord grass is a species that inhabits marsh habitat in its native range, where introduced It is known to establish itself in wave-protected mud and sand flats and grow very quickly into dense impenetrable stands. However, the assembly processes and co … x�bb2d`b``Ń3� �� ��� Spartina alterniflora is the dominant grass species found in coastal wetlands and along tidal shorelines of the eastern US. endstream endobj 291 0 obj <>/Size 264/Type/XRef>>stream Together, our results suggested that tall- and short-form S. alterniflora can host their specific rhizosphere microbial communities and had different strategies of N usage via selecting the composition of rhizosphere bacterial assemblages, which in turn might determine the growth and invasiveness of S. alterniflora in its introduced range. 0000005129 00000 n x�b```b``�a`e`��� �� @16� +ux�x�xbrdf6 5t Spartina alterniflora is the dominant grass species found in coastal wetlands and along tidal shorelines of the eastern US. Culms (stems): Stems range in height from 60-250 cm (30-120 cm S. foliosa). The stems are hollow and hairless. The tide on the Maine coast where samples were collected has a spring range of about 12 feet. Plants rhizomatous; rhizomes elongate, flaccid, white, scales inflated, not or only slightly imbricate. Our native plant nursery also has many other species available throughout the year. or. 0000000016 00000 n Spartina alterniflora (Smooth Cordgrass) is a species of marsh grass native to the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States, where it is considered a valuable plant making important contributions to the coastal ecology: Its dense growth provides protection against storm surge and “erosion control along shorelines, canal banks, levees, and other areas of… Culms are 7-12 mm wide at the base. Spartina alterniflora which is identified on the plan as salt marsh. S. alterniflora is a rhizomatous perennial grass that grows initially in round, genetically similar, clumps ranging between 0.5-3m in height, eventually forming extensive monoculture meadows. Status Stable Smooth cordgrass is a native perennial grass with flat, blade-like leaves. Normile, D. 2004. • The fungal co-occurrence network was simplified with the invasion. By 2017, the width of S. alterniflora was 1.88 km, the length was 12.90 km and the area was 3,925 ha. Leaf sheaths of S. alterniflora and hybrids may be various shades of maroon at the base of the culms (white-green of S. foliosa). xref It grows in low-lying, salt and brackish tidal marshes along the shores of the middle and lower Chesapeake Bay. Glumes straight, sides usually glabrous, sometimes pilose near the base or appressed pubescent, hairs to 0.3 mm; lower glumes 4-10 mm, acute; upper glumes 8-14 mm, keels glabrous, lateral veins not present, apices acuminate to obtuse, occasionally apiculate; lemmas glabrous or sparsely pilose, apices usually acuminate; paleas slightly exceeding the lemmas, thin, papery, apices obtuse or rounded; anthers 3-6 mm. 2007; Hughes 2014), consistent with local adaptation. Exotic Spartina alterniflora has become widely distributed along most of the coastlines in China in a wide range of inundation frequencies. 0000014917 00000 n Science 306:968-969, https://bitbucket.org/aafc-mbb/fna-data-curation/src/2e0870ddd59836b60bcf96646a41e87ea5a5943a/coarse grained fna xml/V25/V25 854.xml, Copyright is held by the Flora of North America Association for all volumes except Volumes 24 and 25 (Poaceae). 3. Spartina alterniflora is now a major weed problem in southeastern China (Normile 2004). 0000004635 00000 n 292 0 obj <>stream 264 29 Pure S. alterniflora grows within the lower elevational marsh zones in its native range but, in San Francisco Bay, its hybrids with S. foliosa grow both below and above the range of that species. glabra (Muhlenberg ex Elliott) Fernald, Rhodora 18: 178. Alaska Spartina Plan . California county polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box. S. alterniflora rhizome fragment survival over time for Willapa Bay plants.....5 Figure 2. Spartina alterniflora var. 0000003336 00000 n startxref One limitation of biogeographic studies of S. alterniflora within the native range is a lack of knowledge of geographic variation in reproductive biology. 264 0 obj <> endobj Biological control using other natural enemy species from the native range of smooth cordgrass is an unlikely option in California because of the presence of the native California cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) which would also be impacted. Native Range: Newfoundland to lower St. Lawrence R., Que, s. to NJ; Locally naturalized in w Europe (Fernald 1950) Appearance Spartina alterniflora is a perennial grass that expands via underground rhizomes. 0000001788 00000 n 0000008076 00000 n You can change the display of the base map and layers by clicking on the layer control box in the upper right-hand corner. 0000012223 00000 n This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. 0000007319 00000 n Among invasive species, aquatic plants pose serious threats to local biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Spartina glabra When introduced this species can have a negative effect on native species including some endangered. S. alterniflora was established in the upper half of the neap range and S. patens in … BASIONYM: Spartina glabra Muhlenberg ex Elliott 1816; Dactylis maritima Walter 1788, non Curtis 1787. • Inflorescence: 10-40 cm long (9-25 cm S. foliosa) with dense colorless flowers. 0000002994 00000 n 0000006522 00000 n Download with Google Download with Facebook. 2n = 62. %%EOF THE GUT, WELLFLEET . S. alternifloracan spread vegetatively via under-ground rhizome expansion of individual clones, or it can reproduce sexually via wind-dispersed pollen. Zhenming Ge. Create a free account to download. For an availability please contact us by phone or e-mail. 0000003766 00000 n Geographic subdivisions for Spartina alterniflora: CCo (San Francisco Bay) MAP CONTROLS 1. In its native range, decomposed smooth cordgrass provides an important source of food for crabs and other invertebrates and cordgrass marshes are nursery grounds for juvenile fishes and blue crabs. It is native to the eastern United States, but is considered invasive, in salt marshes, in … (Labr. 0000005687 00000 n glabra Spartina alterniflora Loiseleur-Deslongchamps, var. The velocity zone, where 3 foot waves are expected in storms, is seaward of the MHW as shown on the plan. Locations of drift card release sites … 0000002370 00000 n • The fungal community became more homogenized with the invasion. Expanding trade with China creates ecological backlash. Copyright for Volumes 24 and 25 is held by Utah State University. Please see. 0000010661 00000 n ,l0\t8��tICCơ6��=8�z4�\�ڌ$�79��F�_q ���YI�HB)c���EG�=@���ȟ�%�X,����h�:A(BX�P!�����X�7�0]`S���`��4#dǵˌ�+,x/,�r�mPgx�x�y�_��pC ��R��o��8� m��hk� [ 6d`ԝ���W���֖1^��$ ς��� �f� � )AN 0000005609 00000 n endstream endobj 265 0 obj <>/Outlines 26 0 R/Metadata 55 0 R/PieceInfo<>>>/Pages 54 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/OCProperties<>/OCGs[266 0 R]>>/StructTreeRoot 57 0 R/Type/Catalog/LastModified(D:20080703103602)/PageLabels 52 0 R>> endobj 266 0 obj <. Decaploid plants tend to be larger than octoploids, but they cannot be reliably distinguished without a chromosome count. 0000004129 00000 n alterniflora across the native range (Blum et al. Spikelets 8-14 mm, straight, usually divergent, more or less equally imbricate on all the branches. <<5BBFF29AB3E31543A76073B1C2D79928>]>> 0000009838 00000 n 0000001977 00000 n Spartina alterniflora was introduced to the Yancheng coastal intertidal zone in 1979 (Xu et al., 1989), and a continuous area of S. alterniflora has formed since 2000. A process-based grid model for the simulation of range expansion of Spartina alterniflora on the coastal saltmarshes in the Yangtze Estuary. Spartina alterniflora is considered a serious threat to coastal ecosystems in Washington and California. 0000047827 00000 n We examined trait differences and evolution across geographic clines among continents of the intertidal grass Spartina alterniflora within its invasive and native ranges. Limitation of biogeographic studies of S. alterniflora was 1.88 km, the assembly processes and co Alaska! North America, and in England and southeastern France Massachusetts, and with pectinata... 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Will help produce healthier and longer living colonies MHW as shown on layer! Glabra Muhlenberg ex Elliott 1816 ; Dactylis maritima Walter 1788, non 1787.