Alexandria, which had been a city of prosperity and learning, became an arena of religious contention between the new faith of the Christians and the old faith of the pagan majority. The Arab Academy for Science, Technology & Maritime Transport is a semi-private educational institution that offers courses for high school, undergraduate level, and postgraduate students. He was said to have the power of working miracles. The Italian school is the Istituto "Don Bosco". The Kom el shoqafa Catacombs are considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages and date back to the 2nd century. The Serapeum, which stood for ancient tradition, conflicted with the rise of Christianity. As a result, specialist women's publications like al-Fatāh by Hind Nawal, the country's first women's journal, appeared.[50]. Other notable mosques in the city include Ali ibn Abi Talib mosque in Somouha, Bilal mosque, al-Gamaa al-Bahari in Mandara, Hatem mosque in Somouha, Hoda el-Islam mosque in Sidi Bishr, al-Mowasah mosque in Hadara, Sharq al-Madina mosque in Miami, al-Shohadaa mosque in Mostafa Kamel, Al Qa'ed Ibrahim Mosque, Yehia mosque in Zizinia, Sidi Gaber mosque in Sidi Gaber, Sidi B esher mosque, Rokay el-Islam mosque in Elessway, Elsadaka Mosque in Sidibesher Qebly, Elshatbi mosque and Sultan mosque. - Elizabeth Cox, Religious strife increases between Christians and other faiths in, Christian Patriarch Theophilus destroys pagan temples in, The Death of the Classical World by Mangasarian, The Rise and Fall of Alexandria: Birthplace of the Modern World, The Architecture of Alexandria and Egypt 300 B.C.--A.D. Last modified May 02, 2018. In the early 20th century, the city became a home for novelists and poets. It was definitely the most beautiful of the big cities I visited in Egypt. "Between Politics and Literature: Journals in Alexandria and Istanbul at the End of the Nineteenth Century" (Chapter 15). The city is also the nominal see of the Melkite Greek Catholic titular Patriarchate of Alexandria (generally vested in its leading Patriarch of Antioch) and the actual cathedral see of its Patriarchal territory of Egypt, Sudan and South Sudan, which uses the Byzantine Rite, and the nominal see of the Armenian Catholic Eparchy of Alexandria (for all Egypt and Sudan, whose actual cathedral is in Cairo), a suffragan of the Armenian Catholic Patriarch of Cilicia, using the Armenian Rite. In the modern world, the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria both lay claim to this ancient heritage. Archaeologists found an animal necropolis near the temple. After Alexander's departure, his viceroy Cleomenes continued the expansion. He then declared martial law, took over the royal palace, and sent for the exiled co-regent Cleopatra VII. Alexandria University is a public university that follows the Egyptian system of higher education. Alexandria is located in the country of Egypt, on the southern coast of the Mediterranean. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Scholars who argue against Julius Caesar’s role in the burning of the great library point to the fact that there is evidence it was still extant under the reign of Augustus and that visitors were still attracted to the city as a seat of learning. Things to Do in Alexandria Egypt #1 — Montaza Palace. Alexandria grew rapidly to become an important centre of Hellenistic civilization and remained the capital of Ptolemaic Egypt and Roman and Byzantine Egypt for almost 1,000 years, until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 641, when a new capital was founded at Fustat (later absorbed into Cairo). Ancient History Encyclopedia. The first Ptolemy began the project, and the second Ptolemy (Ptolemy II Philadelphus) completed it, at a total cost of 800 talents. The city grew from a small port town to become the grandest and most important metropolis in ancient Egypt. Other less popular sports like tennis and squash are usually played in private social and sports clubs, like: Started in 2011, Cross Egypt Challenge is an international cross-country motorcycle and scooter rally conducted throughout the most difficult tracks and roads of Egypt. The Church of Alexandria had jurisdiction over most of the continent of Africa. Alexandria is not really on anyone’s bucket list but if you are on a cruise you will undoubtedly stop at Alexandria for a day or so. It also is connected by canal with the Nile. [53], The Bibliotheca Alexandrina was inaugurated in 2002, near the site of the old Library. Start and end in Cairo! [21] Egypt turned to Europe in their effort to modernize the country. So it is with religion. [9] Just east of Alexandria (where Abu Qir Bay is now), there was in ancient times marshland and several islands. Other institutions of higher education in Alexandria include Alexandria Institute of Technology (AIT) and Pharos University in Alexandria. A café operates in the second floor of the first car of tram 1 (a women-only car) which costs 5 L.E per person, also offering a WiFi service. Remains of a Christian church show that the temple was used as a church in later centuries. After the Battle of Ridaniya in 1517, the city was conquered by the Ottoman Turks and remained under Ottoman rule until 1798. In addition, the Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology in New Borg El Arab city is a research university set up in collaboration between the Japanese and Egyptian governments in 2010. Alexandria plays host to two intercity railway stations: the aforementioned Misr Station (in the older Manshia district in the western part of the city) and Sidi Gaber railway station (in the district of Sidi Gaber in the centre of the eastern expansion in which most Alexandrines reside), both of which also serve the commuter rail line. Alexandria was founded by Alexander the Great in April 331 BC as Ἀλεξάνδρεια (Alexandreia). On the east of the mole was the Great Harbour, now an open bay; on the west lay the port of Eunostos, with its inner basin Kibotos, now vastly enlarged to form the modern harbour. Like no other DC magazine. As a reaction to the establishment of French religious institutions, a secular (laic) mission established Lycée el-Horreya, which initially followed a French system of education, but is currently a public school run by the Egyptian government. It also became infamous for the religious strife which resulted in the martyrdom of the philosopher Hypatia of Alexandria in 415 CE. Prior to this date, though the city certainly experienced its share of problems, it remained a stable environment. Caesar arrived and, whether real or feigned, claimed outrage at the death of his former friend and ally. Saved from Some smaller yellow-coloured vehicles have further routes beyond the two main endpoints. The stadium is the oldest stadium in Egypt, being built in 1929. Part of Canopus is still on the shore above water, and had been studied by archaeologists the longest. Judith McKenzie et al., The Architecture of Alexandria and Egypt, C. 300 B.C. Your email address will not be published. Alexandria's once-flourishing Jewish community declined rapidly following the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, after which negative reactions towards Zionism among Egyptians led to Jewish residents in the city, and elsewhere in Egypt, being perceived as Zionist collaborators. Alexandria was one of three cities that participated in hosting the African Cup of Nations in January 2006, which Egypt won. Alexandria has a number of higher education institutions. Apostolic Vicariate of Alexandria in Egypt-Heliopolis-Port Said, Patriarchal territory of Egypt, Sudan and South Sudan, Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology, Arab Academy for Science, Technology & Maritime Transport, Neue Deutsche Schule Alexandria, which is run by Frau Sally Hammam, List of twin towns and sister cities in Egypt, List of cities founded by Alexander the Great, Glimpsing Alexandria from archaeological evidence, Transactions of the American Philological Association, "Egypt as a Province in the Islamic Caliphate, 641–868", "Nasser Assassination Attempt, October 26, 1954", "Deadly flash floods hit Egypt's Alexandria", "Clima en Alexandria / Nouzha – Históricos el tiempo", "Climatological Information for Alexandria, Egypt" (1961–1990)", "Alexandria, Egypt: Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data", "Alexandria Climate and Weather Averages, Egypt", "NOVA Online | Mysteries of the Nile | 27 August 1999: The Third Attempt", "Catacombs of Kom ash-Suqqafa – Lonely Planet", "New underwater tourist attraction in Egypt",, Egypt to restore Alexandria's historic synagogue, "Egypt's $1bn Alexandria Metro to start construction in Q1 2020", "Oct. 16, 2002: Second Great Library Opens in Alexandria", "Egypt's Alexandria to create private tourist-only beaches", "Catania Amica Del Mondo, Ecco Tutti I Gemellaggi Della Città Etnea", "Governor of Alexandria Meets Mayor of Paphos to Reinforce Cooperation Agreement Between the Two Sides and to Discuss Repercussions of Corona Virus Via Video Conference", Details on the archaïc port with a pdf of Gaston Jondet's report, 1916,, Ancient Greek archaeological sites in Egypt, Populated places in Alexandria Governorate, Mediterranean port cities and towns in Egypt, Populated places established in the 4th century BC, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Pages using infobox settlement with possible demonym list, Articles containing Egyptian Arabic-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2014, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2015, Pages using multiple image with manual scaled images, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Great Theater, on the modern Hospital Hill near the Ramleh station. Ivory Pyxis Depicting Saint Menasby Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin (CC BY-NC-SA). Persistent efforts have been made to explore the antiquities of Alexandria. Mark, Joshua J. A luxury light blue tram car operates from San Stefano to Ras El Tin, with free WiFi and movies and songs played inside for 5 L.E per ticket. Discover (and save!) Finally, in 305 BC, Ptolemy declared himself Pharaoh as Ptolemy I Soter ("Savior") and moved his capital to Alexandria. The city grew to become the largest in the known world at the time, attracting scholars, scientists, philosophers, mathematicians, artists, and historians. The library he built was known as the Great Library. One of them being Imam Borhan Oddin El Aaraj. Alexandria was founded in c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great,[9] king of Macedon and leader of the Greek League of Corinth, during his conquest of the Achaemenid Empire. The Ras al-Tin quarter represents all that is left of the island of Pharos, the site of the actual lighthouse having been weathered away by the sea. Founded by Alexander the Great in 332 BCE, Alexandria was an Egyptian capital for over 1000 years and is to this day an important industrial, economic and tourist centre. The Great Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world.The Library was part of a larger research institution called the Mouseion, which was dedicated to the Muses, the nine goddesses of the arts. It was conquered by the Sassanid Persians in 619 CE. The main sport that interests Alexandrians is football, as is the case in the rest of Egypt and Africa. Alexandria & Ancient Egypt - 13 days includes accommodation in a hotel as well … The next year, Cleopatra and Antony both committed suicide and, with her death, the Ptolemaic line came to an end. Intercity passenger service is operated by Egyptian National Railways. Encouragement and help have been given by the local Archaeological Society, and by many individuals, notably Greeks proud of a city which is one of the glories of their national history. CA$29.29 per adult. The tram is considered the cheapest method of public transport. The most famous mosque in Alexandria is Abu al-Abbas al-Mursi Mosque in Bahary. 1 day in Alexandria Cruising to Egypt . Growing up Jewish in Alexandria: The Story of a Sephardic Family's Exodus... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. After conquering Syria in 332 BCE, Alexander the Great swept down into Egypt with his army. It has revealed the ancient city's well-preserved theater, and the remains of its Roman-era baths. It is located in Abusir, the western suburb of Alexandria in Borg el Arab city. A freelance writer and former part-time Professor of Philosophy at Marist College, New York, Joshua J. Orthodox Christian churches are most common but Catholic, Anglican and Evangelical churches are present. The first foreign schools date to the early 19th century, when French missionaries began establishing French charitable schools to educate the Egyptians. "Pompey's Pillar" is a misnomer, as it has nothing to do with Pompey, having been erected in 293 for Diocletian, possibly in memory of the rebellion of Domitius Domitianus. With a population of 5,200,000, Alexandria is the largest city on the Mediterranean - also called the Bride of the Mediterranean by locals - the sixth-largest city in the Arab world and the ninth-largest in Africa. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. The Nile Delta had long been politically significant as the point of entry for anyone wishing to trade with Egypt. Here, substructures of a large building or group of buildings have been exposed, which are perhaps part of the Serapeum. The city was a major centre of early Christianity and was the centre of the Patriarchate of Alexandria, which was one of the major centres of Christianity in the Eastern Roman Empire. The city was named after Alexander the Great, who founded it around 334 BC during his epic conquests. Apr 5, 2015 - This Pin was discovered by Aliya Smyth. Greeks, followed by other Europeans and others, began moving to the city. License. Route 6 starts at Sidi Gaber El Sheikh in the outer route between Sporting and Mustafa Kamel. After the Roman emperor Constantine the Great (272-337 CE) passed the Edict of Milan in 313 CE (decreeing religious tolerance), Christians were no longer liable for prosecution under the law and began to not only demand more religious rights, but more vociferously attack the pagans and the Jews. As early as the 7th century BC, there existed important port cities of Canopus and Heracleion. 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